Marathon Training Program:
Preparing for the Long Run
Definition and Purposes of the Long Run
For the purposes of this discussion, the distance of a long run is considered to be 10 miles or longer as well as runs that last over 90 minutes. It should be run approximately one minute slower than the pace you plan to run during the marathon or stated another way, one to 1-1/2 minutes per mile slower than your present 10K race pace. If your training schedule calls for a long run of 16 miles, the distance must be run at one time rather than splitting the distance into an 8-mile morning session and an 8-mile evening run.
The long run is the most important component of marathon training because it teaches the body to both mentally and physically tackle the challenges presented in completing the 26.2-mile event. Physiologically, the body must learn to tap into and utilize energy reserves from fat storage sites after the glycogen (fuel stores in the muscles, converted over from carbohydrate food sources) have been depleted. Through long run training, the capacity to store more glycogen within the muscles increases. An increase in glycogen stores translates into the ability to maintain one’s pace during the marathon and delay the onset of fatigue. Conversely, trouble is on the horizon when you run out of glycogen, as your pace will significantly decrease.
One must also be accustomed to running for very
long periods of time, and the mental toughness that develops from
completing long training runs pays off handsome dividends during the
The long run also provides an excellent opportunity to experiment with a
variety of issues and concerns (e.g., shoes, nutrition, pacing, etc.).
Please refer to Areas of Experimentation section for more information.
Above all, marathon training schedules must be designed so that runners
are adequately rested prior to undertaking their long runs. One who
completes at least two long runs of 20 miles or longer prior to his or
her marathon will no doubt reduce the possibility of visiting the
dreaded “wall” (the point in time when glycogen stores within the
muscles have been depleted and as a result, the runner’s pace slows
considerably, oftentimes to a walk).
In short, the majority of runners who experience difficulty in
completing their long training runs fail to prepare adequately for these
critical workouts. In short, remember that both long runs and the
marathon don’t have to be painful experiences. The key is to plan ahead.
Benefits of the Long Run
- Provides the necessary endurance to complete the marathon.
- Strengthens the heart (increases stoke
volume) and opens the capillaries, both sending energy to working
muscles and flushing waste products from fatigued muscles.
- Other physiological benefits include
the increased number and size of mitochondria and increased myoglobin
concentration in muscle fibers.
- Strengthens the leg muscles and ligaments, thus improving your endurance.
- Recruits fast-twitch muscle fibers to help with slow-twitch tasks (like running a marathon).
- Teaches the body to burn fat as fuel.
your mental toughness and coping skills, thus increasing/enhancing your
confidence level that you can go the full marathon distance on race
- Increases your overall speed, even for shorter races.
Preparing for the Long Run
While completing long runs can be sometimes difficult, preparing
properly for these training sessions will make this important workout
much easier to accomplish. Listed below are areas of concern that
require your careful preparation prior to, and during your long run.
Let’s assume that your long run is scheduled for Sunday morning.
- Get lots of rest Saturday night, aiming for 8 hours sleep.
- Make either Friday or Saturday a complete rest day for the legs.
- If you do train on Saturday, make it a very light workout on the legs.
- Begin hydrating on Saturday.
- Eat meals high in carbohydrates for
lunch and dinner Saturday. Selecting the “right” foods is an important
area of experimentation.
- Avoid foods with excessive protein/fat content all day Saturday.
- Drink about eight ounces of water Sunday morning prior to your long run.
- Eat a light snack Sunday morning prior
to your long run. This is also an important experimentation area in
regard to food selection.
- Drink lots of fluids while running. Be
sure to stop for water frequently throughout the run. For runs longer
than 60 minutes, you MUST drink sports beverages (such as Gatorade,
PowerAde, etc.) at every two to three mile interval. Drinking on the run
requires careful planning of the route (making sure there is water
frequently available along with places to stash sports drinks).
- Consider trying gel carbohydrate
replacement products. Be sure to chase these supplements down with water
to avoid stomach cramps and insure absorption. A final thought: Please
dispose of gel and energy product wrappers properly by throwing them
away in trash receptacles or placing them in your fanny pack. Let’s all
work together to keep the environment clean!
- After the run is over, continue to drink fluids (water, sports drinks, and/or juice products are all great choices).
- As soon as possible (ideally within 15
minutes), grab something nutritious to eat to replace your depleted
glycogen stores. Research indicates that to avoid muscle fatigue the
next day, carbohydrates should be eaten as soon as possible following
long duration exercise.
Shoes, Apparel, and Accessories
- Make sure that you are training in shoes with low mileage wear to maximize absorption of shock.
- Wear Cool-max or synthetic blend
socks, singlet, and shorts that wick away moisture/perspiration and
won’t cause chafing to enhance your comfort level.
Body Glide, Skin Lube, Vaseline, or similar products (on feet, under
arms, between thighs, nipples, etc.) to eliminate or reduce chafing
- Do not over-dress. Assess the need to
wear tights, long-sleeves, etc. as excess clothing can lead to
overheating of the body. Doing so makes the “real feel” 10 degrees
warmer once you begin running. In cooler weather and/or in windy
conditions, consider wearing an old t-shirt that you can discard once
your long run or marathon begins, but be sure that you won’t be running
into the wind later on your return route. Also
- remember that if you
choose to wear a hat, it will trap body heat (great in cold weather) but
a bad idea for a long run or marathon with hot/humid conditions).
Things to Consider While Running Long
- Run at a conversational pace by starting out slowly to conserve glycogen.
- Running at an easy pace reduces the possibility of incurring an injury.
- Stay loose by shaking out your arms and shoulders regularly.
- Carry your arms close to your waist or
hips to conserve energy. Also avoid unnecessary arm swing, particularly
laterally across the body.
- Realize that long runs will sometimes
be difficult to complete and that you may experience some “bad patches”
in the later miles. Persevering through these stretches will develop
mental toughness, an essential skill that will be needed during the
- Use imagery, mental
rehearsal/visualization, and self-talk to develop mental toughness.
Mentally break the course into sections. Read Psychological Issues for more information.
- Cool down by running the last half-mile at a very easy pace.
After the Long Run is Over
- Drink and eat. See Nutrition section of the site for more information.
- Stretch thoroughly.
- Do some light cycling, walking, etc. later in the day to loosen up your legs.
- Consider utilizing some therapeutic
techniques such as dipping your legs in cool water soon after the run,
getting a leg massage over the next couple of days to reduce muscle
soreness and fatigue.
Guidelines and Other Helpful Tips to Make the Long Run Easier and Safer
- Don’t schedule long runs too early in your
training, even if you are physically prepared to cover the distance.
This may lead to staleness or premature burnout. Additionally, you may
“peak” too early in your training.
- Schedule some long runs at the same
time of day the actual marathon will be held to familiarize yourself
with running during that time-frame and to also develop a pre-race
routine for which you feel comfortable.
- Include weight training into your marathon training program.
- Consider running for time,
approximating the distance. Doing so will enable you to have more
flexibility and spontaneity in regards to the route you choose to run.
- Do not increase the distance of your
long run by more than 10 percent per week. This equates to adding
approximately 15 minutes to each subsequent long run.
- Every fourth week of your training
schedule, drop the distance of your long run, providing for an easy week
to facilitate rest and recovery.
- Use your long runs as a means of experimentation regarding future choices of food, clothing, shoes, etc. See Experimentation Issues for more information.
- Schedule you’re longest run no closer
than four weeks before the marathon. The distance of this run should be
23 miles maximum. Above all, DO NOT run 26.2 miles in practice to see if
you can run a marathon. Save your efforts for the actual race!
- It’s perfectly acceptable to stop or
walk to get the fluids down during your long run. Doing so will not have
a negative effect on your preparedness for the marathon. Water and
sports drinks are your “lifeline” to completing these long workouts.
- Running with a group will make the long run more pleasurable and easier to accomplish as opposed to running alone.
- While running with a group is a great
idea, be sure you don’t turn long runs into races. This will almost
surely lead to injury. Find training partners who run at, or close to
your training pace.
Courtesy of marathontraining.com